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The Strengths of Wisdom Provide Unique Contributions to Improved Leadership, Sustainability, Inequality, Gross National Happiness, and Civic Discourse in the Face of Contemporary World Problems

1
Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
2
Lazaridis School of Business and Economics, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 9 April 2018
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Abstract

We present evidence for the strengths of the intellectual virtues that philosophers and behavioral scientists characterize as key cognitive elements of wisdom. Wisdom has been of centuries-long interest for philosophical scholarship, but relative to intelligence largely neglected in public discourse on educational science, public policy, and societal well-being. Wise reasoning characteristics include intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty, consideration of diverse viewpoints, and an attempt to integrate these viewpoints. Emerging scholarship on these features of wisdom suggest that they uniquely contribute to societal well-being, improve leadership, shed light on societal inequality, promote cooperation in Public Goods Games and reduce political polarization and intergroup-hostility. We review empirical evidence about macro-cultural, ecological, situational, and person-level processes facilitating and inhibiting wisdom in daily life. Based on this evidence, we speculate about ways to foster wisdom in education, organizations, and institutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: wisdom; reasoning; virtues; well-being; political polarization; culture; social class; egocentrism; leadership wisdom; reasoning; virtues; well-being; political polarization; culture; social class; egocentrism; leadership
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Grossmann, I.; Brienza, J.P. The Strengths of Wisdom Provide Unique Contributions to Improved Leadership, Sustainability, Inequality, Gross National Happiness, and Civic Discourse in the Face of Contemporary World Problems. J. Intell. 2018, 6, 22.

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