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J. Intell. 2014, 2(3), 82-105; doi:10.3390/jintelligence2030082

Can GE-Covariance Originating in Phenotype to Environment Transmission Account for the Flynn Effect?

1
Department of Biological Psychology, VU University, van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Methods, VU University, van der Boechorststraat 1, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care, van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
4
Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam (NCA), de Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2014 / Revised: 20 August 2014 / Accepted: 21 August 2014 / Published: 1 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Methodological Advances in Understanding the Flynn Effect)
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Abstract

The Dickens and Flynn model of the Flynn effect (generational increases in mean IQ) assigns an important role to genotype-environment covariance (GE-cov). We quantify GE-cov in a longitudinal simplex model by modeling it as phenotype to environment (Ph->E) transmission in twin data. The model fits as well as the standard genetic simplex model, which assumes uncorrelated genetic and environmental influences. We use the results to explore numerically the possible role of GE-cov in amplifying increases in environmental means. Given the estimated Ph->E transmission parameters, GE-cov resulted in an amplification (in std units) of a factor 1.57 (full scale IQ) to 1.7 (performance IQ). The results lend credence to the role of GE-cov in the Flynn effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: genotype-environment covariance; Flynn effect; Dickens and Flynn model; longitudinal genetic modeling genotype-environment covariance; Flynn effect; Dickens and Flynn model; longitudinal genetic modeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

de Kort, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.; Kan, K.-J.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I. Can GE-Covariance Originating in Phenotype to Environment Transmission Account for the Flynn Effect? J. Intell. 2014, 2, 82-105.

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