Challenges 2013, 4(1), 1-16; doi:10.3390/challe4010001
Article

The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

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Received: 10 September 2012; in revised form: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Low-Energy District Heating (DH) systems, providing great energy savings by means of very low operating temperatures of 55 °C and 25 °C for supply and return respectively, were considered to be the 4th generation of the DH systems for a low-energy future. Low-temperature operation is considered to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives.
Keywords: low-energy; low-temperature; district heating; substation; pressure loss; maximum static pressure; optimization; environmental impact
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tol, H.İ.; Svendsen, S. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks. Challenges 2013, 4, 1-16.

AMA Style

Tol Hİ, Svendsen S. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks. Challenges. 2013; 4(1):1-16.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tol, Hakan İ.; Svendsen, Svend. 2013. "The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks." Challenges 4, no. 1: 1-16.

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