Challenges 2013, 4(1), 1-16; doi:10.3390/challe4010001
Article

The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Kongens Lyngby DK-2800, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2012; in revised form: 28 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
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Abstract: Low-Energy District Heating (DH) systems, providing great energy savings by means of very low operating temperatures of 55 °C and 25 °C for supply and return respectively, were considered to be the 4th generation of the DH systems for a low-energy future. Low-temperature operation is considered to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives.
Keywords: low-energy; low-temperature; district heating; substation; pressure loss; maximum static pressure; optimization; environmental impact

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tol, H.İ.; Svendsen, S. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks. Challenges 2013, 4, 1-16.

AMA Style

Tol Hİ, Svendsen S. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks. Challenges. 2013; 4(1):1-16.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tol, Hakan İ.; Svendsen, Svend. 2013. "The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks." Challenges 4, no. 1: 1-16.

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