Next Article in Journal
Does Religious Involvement Mitigate the Effects of Major Discrimination on the Mental Health of African Americans? Findings from the Nashville Stress and Health Study
Previous Article in Journal
An 18th Century Jesuit “Refutation of Metempsychosis” in Sanskrit
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Religions 2017, 8(9), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel8090194

Anger toward God(s) Among Undergraduates in India

1
Department of Psychological Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-7123, USA
2
Department of Psychology, Karnatak University, Dharwad-03, Karnataka State 580 003, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 17 September 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [271 KB, uploaded 17 September 2017]

Abstract

Many people report occasional feelings of anger toward God. However, most evidence pertains to western, predominantly Christian populations. In this study, Indian university students (N = 139; 78% Hindu) completed a survey about anger toward God(s). Polytheists (45%) chose one god to focus on. Measurement invariance tests supported comparisons of anger toward God between the predominantly Hindu Indian sample and three mostly Christian U.S. undergraduate samples (Ns = 1040, 1811, 918). Indian participants reported more current and situation-specific anger toward God than U.S. participants, but less anger toward God over their lifetimes. In the Indian sample, anger toward God correlated positively with other indicators of religious/spiritual struggle, seeing God as cruel and distant, and seeing anger toward God as morally acceptable. Regarding an event involving suffering, anger toward God related positively to the event’s harmfulness, seeing God as responsible, seeing God’s actions as negative, and responses involving substance use and protest toward God. Generally, these findings replicated those from prior U.S. samples. Polytheists who preferred some gods over others or chose to follow a different god reported greater anger toward gods. Results uphold the comparability of anger toward God(s) between Indian and U.S. undergraduates while beginning to reveal key differences. View Full-Text
Keywords: spiritual struggle; anger at God; religious coping; divine struggle; religious struggle spiritual struggle; anger at God; religious coping; divine struggle; religious struggle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Exline, J.J.; Kamble, S.; Stauner, N. Anger toward God(s) Among Undergraduates in India. Religions 2017, 8, 194.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Religions EISSN 2077-1444 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert Logo copyright Steve Bridenbaugh/UUA
Back to Top