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Religions 2017, 8(8), 138; doi:10.3390/rel8080138

Muslim Work Ethics: Relationships with Religious Orientations and the “Perfect Man” (Ensān-e Kāmel) in Managers and Staff in Iran

1
Department of Psychology, University of Tehran, Al-Ahmad Ave., P.O. Box 14155-6456, Tehran 14155, Iran
2
Department of Psychology, Department #2801, University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, 615 McCallie Avenue, Chattanooga, TN 37403, USA
3
Department of Psychology, 1418 Brackett Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 25 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract

Weber’s association of a work ethic with Protestantism has been extended to religions, including Islam, more generally. Managers and staff in a bank and department store in Tehran responded to Muslim religiousness measures along with the multidimensional work ethics profile (MWEP). The MWEP is a 7-factor instrument that records Weber’s interpretation of work ethics. Intrinsic, extrinsic personal, and extrinsic cultural religious orientations predicted a higher work ethic. Two extrinsic cultural religious orientation factors exhibited especially strong connections with MWEP factors. The morality/ethics MWEP factor most consistently predicted Muslim commitments. Integrative self-knowledge and self-control served as empirical markers of an Iranian Muslim spiritual ideal called ensān-e kāmel or the “perfect man.” Both correlated positively with morality/ethics and with three of the four extrinsic cultural religious orientations. Managers scored higher than staff on morality/ethics, on the two characteristics of the “perfect man”, and on the three of four extrinsic cultural religious orientation factors. These data supported the existence of a Muslim work ethic. View Full-Text
Keywords: work ethics; Islam; multidimensional work ethics profile; religious orientations; Muslim “perfect man” (ensān-e kāmel); Iran work ethics; Islam; multidimensional work ethics profile; religious orientations; Muslim “perfect man” (ensān-e kāmel); Iran
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ghorbani, N.; Watson, P.; Karimpour, M.; Chen, Z.J. Muslim Work Ethics: Relationships with Religious Orientations and the “Perfect Man” (Ensān-e Kāmel) in Managers and Staff in Iran. Religions 2017, 8, 138.

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