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Religions 2013, 4(3), 313-324; doi:10.3390/rel4030313

Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age

School of Education & Arts, University of Ballarat, Victoria, 3350, Australia
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
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A previous study on university students reported that personal, communal, and environmental spiritual well-being contributed to happiness over and above personality but that relating with God did not. In this study, happiness was assessed using a modified Oxford Happiness Inventory. Personality scores were obtained using forms of Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. Four domains of spiritual well-being were determined using Fisher’s Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Relationship with God was reflected by the Transcendental domain of spiritual well-being in this instrument. Studies with 466 university students from Australia, Northern Ireland, and England, 494 people attending churches in Ballarat, and 1002 secondary school students in Victoria showed that relating with God accounts for variance on happiness, over and above personality, and age.
Keywords: happiness; personality; age; relation with God happiness; personality; age; relation with God
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Fisher, J. Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age. Religions 2013, 4, 313-324.

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