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Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age
School of Education & Arts, University of Ballarat, Victoria, 3350, Australia
Received: 9 May 2013; in revised form: 20 June 2013 / Accepted: 21 June 2013 / Published: 24 June 2013
Abstract: A previous study on university students reported that personal, communal, and environmental spiritual well-being contributed to happiness over and above personality but that relating with God did not. In this study, happiness was assessed using a modified Oxford Happiness Inventory. Personality scores were obtained using forms of Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire. Four domains of spiritual well-being were determined using Fisher’s Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Relationship with God was reflected by the Transcendental domain of spiritual well-being in this instrument. Studies with 466 university students from Australia, Northern Ireland, and England, 494 people attending churches in Ballarat, and 1002 secondary school students in Victoria showed that relating with God accounts for variance on happiness, over and above personality, and age.
Keywords: happiness; personality; age; relation with God
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MDPI and ACS Style
Fisher, J. Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age. Religions 2013, 4, 313-324.
Fisher J. Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age. Religions. 2013; 4(3):313-324.
Fisher, John. 2013. "Relating with God Contributes to Variance in Happiness, over that from Personality and Age." Religions 4, no. 3: 313-324.