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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(4), 71; doi:10.3390/jmse4040071

Controls on Nitrous Oxide Production in, and Fluxes from a Coastal Aquifer in Long Island, NY, USA

1
Geosciences Department, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
2
Geosciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Henry J. Bokuniewicz
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal Groundwater Dynamics and Its Derived Chemical Fluxes)
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Abstract

Nitrous oxide (N2O) has 265 times greater greenhouse potential than carbon dioxide and its atmospheric concentration has increased by about 20% since industrialization; however, N2O production and emissions from aquatic systems are poorly constrained. To evaluate N2O fluxes associated with meteoric groundwater discharge to coastal zones, we measured N2O concentrations in May and October 2011 from two discharge points of the Upper Glacial aquifer on Long Island, NY, USA. One coastal zone contains only fresh water and the other contains an upper saline zone. N2O concentrations decreased by around 40% for the fresh water and a factor of two for the salt water from May to October, 2011. Fluxes were around 100 to 200 times greater from the freshwater (246 to 448 µmol/m shoreline/day) than saltwater aquifer (26.1 to 26.5 µmol/m shoreline/day). N2O concentrations correlate positively with NO3 and dissolved oxygen concentrations and negatively with salinity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and N2 denitrification concentrations. The smaller saltwater N2O export resulted from DOC enrichment in the upper saline zone, which appears to have driven denitrification to completion, removed N2O, and increased N2 denitrification. DOC concentrations should be considered in global N2O flux estimates for coastal aquifers. View Full-Text
Keywords: nitrous oxide; coastal aquifer; submarine groundwater discharge; subterranean estuary; denitrification; Long Island Sound nitrous oxide; coastal aquifer; submarine groundwater discharge; subterranean estuary; denitrification; Long Island Sound
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Young, C.; Martin, J.B.; Hanson, G.N. Controls on Nitrous Oxide Production in, and Fluxes from a Coastal Aquifer in Long Island, NY, USA. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 71.

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