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J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4(1), 18; doi:10.3390/jmse4010018

Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life

1
Marine Institute, Plymouth University, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
2
Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Institute of Oceanography, Athens-Souniou Ave 46.7 km, Anavissos, Attica 19013, Greece
3
European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Climate Risk Management Unit, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra (VA), Italy
4
Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares, Moll de Ponent s/n, 07015 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Simon J. Watson
Received: 11 December 2015 / Revised: 18 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Wind Energy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2250 KB, uploaded 3 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Current climate policy and issues of energy security mean wind farms are being built at an increasing rate to meet energy demand. As wind farm development is very likely in the Mediterranean Sea, we provide an assessment of the offshore wind potential and identify expected biological effects of such developments in the region. We break new ground here by identifying potential offshore wind farm (OWF) “hotspots” in the Mediterranean. Using lessons learned in Northern Europe, and small-scale experiments in the Mediterranean, we identify sensitive species and habitats that will likely be influenced by OWFs in both these hotspot areas and at a basin level. This information will be valuable to guide policy governing OWF development and will inform the industry as and when environmental impact assessments are required for the Mediterranean Sea. View Full-Text
Keywords: renewable energy; Mediterranean Sea; ecological impacts; marine energy renewable energy; Mediterranean Sea; ecological impacts; marine energy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bray, L.; Reizopoulou, S.; Voukouvalas, E.; Soukissian, T.; Alomar, C.; Vázquez-Luis, M.; Deudero, S.; Attrill, M.J.; Hall-Spencer, J.M. Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2016, 4, 18.

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