Next Article in Journal
Soil Organic Carbon in Mangrove Ecosystems with Different Vegetation and Sedimentological Conditions
Next Article in Special Issue
Geological and Sedimentological Evidence of a Large Tsunami Occurring ~1100 Year BP from a Small Coastal Lake along the Bay of La Paz in Baja California Sur, Mexico
Previous Article in Journal
Design Optimization for a Truncated Catenary Mooring System for Scale Model Test
Previous Article in Special Issue
Ionospheric Electron Density Perturbations Driven by Seismic Tsunami-Excited Gravity Waves: Effect of Dynamo Electric Field
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3(4), 1382-1403; doi:10.3390/jmse3041382

Time Evolution of Man-Made Harbor Modifications in San Diego: Effects on Tsunamis

1
National Observatory of Athens, Institute of Geodynamics, Lofos Nymphon, 11810 Athens, Greece
2
AIR Worldwide, 131 Dartmouth Street, Boston, MA 02116, USA
3
Legg Geophysical, 16541 Gothard St # 107, Huntington Beach, CA 92647, USA
4
Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Center for Tsunami Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98115, USA
5
Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, 3737 Brooklyn Ave NE, Box 355672, Seattle, WA 98195-5672, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Valentin Heller, Billy Edge and Umesh A. Korde
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tsunami Science and Engineering)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6084 KB, uploaded 3 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

San Diego, one of the largest ports on the U.S. West Coast and home to the largest U.S. Navy base, is exposed to various local and distant tsunami sources. During the first half of the twentieth century, extensive modifications to the port included but were not limited to dredging, expansion of land near the airport and previous tidal flats, as well as creation of jetties. Using historical nautical charts and available Digital Elevation Models, this study gives an overview of changes to San Diego harbor in the last 150+ years due to human intervention and examines the effects of these changes on tsunamis. Two distant and two local scenarios were selected to demonstrate the impact of modified nearshore topography and bathymetry to incoming tsunamis. Inundation pattern, flow depths, and flooded localities vary greatly from year to year in the four scenarios. Specifically, flooded areas shift from the inner harbor to outer locations. Currents induced by the distant tsunamis intensify with modifications and shift from locations primarily outside the harbor to locations inside. A new characteristic in tsunami dynamics associated with port modifications is the introduction of high current spots. Numerical results also show that the introduction of high currents could threaten navigation, vessels, and facilities at narrow openings and also along the harbor “throat”—therefore, at an increased number of locations. Modifications in the port show that changes could have a negative but also a positive impact through constraint of flooding outside of the harbor and shifting of high currents to locations of minimal impact. The results of this study may be used as a first step toward future harbor design plans to reduce tsunami damages. View Full-Text
Keywords: tsunami; San Diego; port modificationsdamages. tsunami; San Diego; port modificationsdamages.
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M.R.; Gica, E. Time Evolution of Man-Made Harbor Modifications in San Diego: Effects on Tsunamis. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3, 1382-1403.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. EISSN 2077-1312 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top