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Open AccessCase Report
J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(12), 117; doi:10.3390/jcm6120117

Acute Encephalitis in an Adult with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Secondary Involvement of the Central Nervous System: Infectious or Non-Infectious Etiology?

1
Stony Brook School of Medicine, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11790, USA
2
Independent Scholar, 54 Catherine Street, New York, NY 10038, USA
3
Infectious Disease Division, NYU-Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY 11501, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2017 / Revised: 11 November 2017 / Accepted: 18 November 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract

Both infectious and non-infectious etiologies of acute encephalitis have been described, as well as their specific presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapies. Classic findings of acute encephalitis include altered mental status, fever, and new lesions on neuroimaging or electroencephalogram (EEG). We report an interesting case of a 61-year-old male with a history of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with secondary involvement of the central nervous system (SCNS-DLBCL). He presented with acute encephalitis: altered mental status, fever, leukocytosis, neuropsychiatric symptoms, multiple unchanged brain lesions on computed tomography scan of the head, and EEG showed mild to moderate diffuse slowing with low-moderate polymorphic delta and theta activity. With such a wide range of symptoms, the differential diagnosis included paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalitis. Infectious and autoimmune/paraneoplastic encephalitis in patients with SCNS-DLBCL are not well documented in the literature, hence diagnosis and therapy becomes challenging. This case report describes the patient’s unique presentation of acute encephalitis. View Full-Text
Keywords: neuropsychiatric presentation of encephalitis; paraneoplastic encephalitis; autoimmune encephalitis; infectious encephalitis; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma neuropsychiatric presentation of encephalitis; paraneoplastic encephalitis; autoimmune encephalitis; infectious encephalitis; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moonga, S.S.; Liang, K.; Cunha, B.A. Acute Encephalitis in an Adult with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Secondary Involvement of the Central Nervous System: Infectious or Non-Infectious Etiology? J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 117.

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