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J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6(10), 95; doi:10.3390/jcm6100095

Myocardial Expression of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Patients with Heart Failure

1
Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, West German Heart and Vascular Center, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, 45147 Essen, Germany
2
Department of Pathology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, 45147 Essen, Germany
3
Department of Thoracic Transplantation, West German Heart and Vascular Center, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, 45147 Essen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alberto Polimeni
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 26 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic inflammatory protein and contributes to several different inflammatory and ischemic/hypoxic diseases. MIF was shown to be cardioprotective in experimental myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and its expression is regulated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. We here report on MIF expression in the failing human heart and assess myocardial MIF in different types of cardiomyopathy. Myocardial tissue samples from n = 30 patients were analyzed by quantitative Real-Time PCR. MIF and HIF-1α mRNA expression was analyzed in myocardial samples from patients with ischemic (ICM) and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) and from patients after heart transplantation (HTX). MIF expression was elevated in myocardial samples from patients with ICM compared to NICM. Transplanted hearts showed lower MIF levels compared to hearts from patients with ICM. Expression of HIF-1α was analyzed and was shown to be significantly increased in ICM patients compared to patients with NICM. MIF and HIF-1α mRNA is expressed in the human heart. MIF and HIF-1α expression depends on the underlying type of cardiomyopathy. Patients with ICM show increased myocardial MIF and HIF-1α expression. View Full-Text
Keywords: MIF; cardiomyopathy; biopsy; inflammation; oxidative stress MIF; cardiomyopathy; biopsy; inflammation; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pohl, J.; Hendgen-Cotta, U.B.; Stock, P.; Luedike, P.; Baba, H.A.; Kamler, M.; Rassaf, T. Myocardial Expression of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Patients with Heart Failure. J. Clin. Med. 2017, 6, 95.

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