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J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5(12), 118; doi:10.3390/jcm5120118

The Dual Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

1
GIGA-Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium
2
Gruppo Villa Maria Care and Research, Anthea Hospital, 70126 Bari, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Christophe Dubois and Laurence Panicot-Dubois
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrophil Functions: From Immunity to Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [778 KB, uploaded 17 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterised by aberrant immunological responses leading to chronic inflammation without tissue regeneration. These two diseases are considered distinct entities, and there is some evidence that neutrophil behaviour, above all other aspects of immunity, clearly separate them. Neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to the site of inflammation, and their action is crucial to limit invasion by microorganisms. Furthermore, they play an essential role in proper resolution of inflammation. When these processes are not tightly regulated, they can trigger positive feedback amplification loops that promote neutrophil activation, leading to significant tissue damage and evolution toward chronic disease. Defective chemotaxis, as observed in Crohn’s disease, can also contribute to the disease through impaired microbe elimination. In addition, through NET production, neutrophils may be involved in thrombo-embolic events frequently observed in IBD patients. While the role of neutrophils has been studied in different animal models of IBD for many years, their contribution to the pathogenesis of IBD remains poorly understood, and no molecules targeting neutrophils are used and validated for the treatment of these pathologies. Therefore, it is crucial to improve our understanding of their mode of action in these particular conditions in order to provide new therapeutic avenues for IBD. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutrophils; intestinal inflammation; hyper-activation; therapy neutrophils; intestinal inflammation; hyper-activation; therapy
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Wéra, O.; Lancellotti, P.; Oury, C. The Dual Role of Neutrophils in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. J. Clin. Med. 2016, 5, 118.

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