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J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4(9), 1815-1840; doi:10.3390/jcm4091815

Interrelation between Neuroendocrine Disturbances and Medical Complications Encountered during Rehabilitation after TBI

Neurological Rehabilitation Centre, University of Leipzig, Muldentalweg 1, D-04828 Bennewitz bei Leipzig, Germany
Academic Editors: Anna Kopczak and Günter Stalla
Received: 28 July 2015 / Revised: 25 August 2015 / Accepted: 15 September 2015 / Published: 22 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroendocrine Disturbances after Brain Damage)
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Abstract

Traumatic brain injury is not a discrete event but an unfolding sequence of damage to the central nervous system. Not only the acute phase but also the subacute and chronic period after injury, i.e., during inpatient rehabilitation, is characterized by multiple neurotransmitter alterations, cellular dysfunction, and medical complications causing additional secondary injury. Neuroendocrine disturbances also influence neurological outcome and are easily overlooked as they often present with diffuse symptoms such as fatigue, depression, poor concentration, or a decline in overall cognitive function; these are also typical sequelae of traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, neurological complications such as hydrocephalus, epilepsy, fatigue, disorders of consciousness, paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity, or psychiatric-behavioural symptoms may mask and/or complicate the diagnosis of neuroendocrine disturbances, delay appropriate treatment and impede neurorehabilitation. The present review seeks to examine the interrelation between neuroendocrine disturbances with neurological complications frequently encountered after moderate to severe TBI during rehabilitation. Common neuroendocrine disturbances and medical complications and their clinical implications are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender; injury severity; partial pituitary insufficiency; hormonal influences; sex differences; severe traumatic brain injury gender; injury severity; partial pituitary insufficiency; hormonal influences; sex differences; severe traumatic brain injury
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Renner, C.I.E. Interrelation between Neuroendocrine Disturbances and Medical Complications Encountered during Rehabilitation after TBI. J. Clin. Med. 2015, 4, 1815-1840.

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