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Membranes 2018, 8(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8020025

Low-Energy Membrane Process for Concentration of Stick Water

1
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clemson University, 127 Earle Hall, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
2
Animal Co-Products Research and Education Center, Clemson University, 250 Poole Agricultural Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 24 May 2018 / Accepted: 25 May 2018 / Published: 27 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Membrane Applications in Water Treatment)
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Abstract

This communication describes the application of forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate stick water, a nutrient-rich water byproduct of meat rendering operations. The objectives of the study were to carry out a set of batch FO runs in concentration mode to determine the maximum achievable stick water concentration and to perform a preliminary cost analysis for operating a FO/reverse osmosis membrane separation process for comparison to an evaporative concentration process. The study examined the roles of feed and draw solution stir rates, temperature, feed concentration, and draw solution ionic strength on flux using commercial cellulose triacetate membranes. Results show that FO could concentrate the stick water up to 45 wt %; however, concentrations above about 30 wt % would be difficult to process through conventional membrane configurations. Preliminary operating cost estimations show that the energy cost of the FO process is about 5.3% of the energy costs for a single-effect thermal evaporation process; and, assuming a 2-year membrane lifetime, the total operating cost using FO membranes was estimated to be about 23.1% of the operating cost using such a thermal evaporation process. View Full-Text
Keywords: dewatering; engineered osmosis; fouling; rendering; wastewater dewatering; engineered osmosis; fouling; rendering; wastewater
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhou, J.; Husson, S.M. Low-Energy Membrane Process for Concentration of Stick Water. Membranes 2018, 8, 25.

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