Low-Energy Membrane Process for Concentration of Stick Water
AbstractThis communication describes the application of forward osmosis (FO) to concentrate stick water, a nutrient-rich water byproduct of meat rendering operations. The objectives of the study were to carry out a set of batch FO runs in concentration mode to determine the maximum achievable stick water concentration and to perform a preliminary cost analysis for operating a FO/reverse osmosis membrane separation process for comparison to an evaporative concentration process. The study examined the roles of feed and draw solution stir rates, temperature, feed concentration, and draw solution ionic strength on flux using commercial cellulose triacetate membranes. Results show that FO could concentrate the stick water up to 45 wt %; however, concentrations above about 30 wt % would be difficult to process through conventional membrane configurations. Preliminary operating cost estimations show that the energy cost of the FO process is about 5.3% of the energy costs for a single-effect thermal evaporation process; and, assuming a 2-year membrane lifetime, the total operating cost using FO membranes was estimated to be about 23.1% of the operating cost using such a thermal evaporation process. View Full-Text
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Zhou, J.; Husson, S.M. Low-Energy Membrane Process for Concentration of Stick Water. Membranes 2018, 8, 25.
Zhou J, Husson SM. Low-Energy Membrane Process for Concentration of Stick Water. Membranes. 2018; 8(2):25.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zhou, Jinxiang; Husson, Scott M. 2018. "Low-Energy Membrane Process for Concentration of Stick Water." Membranes 8, no. 2: 25.
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