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Membranes 2015, 5(1), 136-149; doi:10.3390/membranes5010136

Preparation and Characterization of Thin-Film Composite Membrane with Nanowire-Modified Support for Forward Osmosis Process

Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800, Australia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ludovic Dumee
Received: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 6 March 2015 / Published: 20 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from MSA ECR MemSym2014)
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Abstract

Internal concentration polarization (ICP) in forward osmosis (FO) process is a characteristic problem for asymmetric thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane which leads to lower water flux. To mitigate the ICP effect, modification of the substrates’ properties has been one of the most effective methods. A new polyethersulfone-based ultrafiltration membrane with increased surface porosity and high water flux was recently produced by incorporating Zn2GeO4 nanowires. The composite membrane was used as a substrate for the fabrication of TFC FO membrane, by coating a thin layer of polyamide on top of the substrate. The substrate and the nanowires were characterized by a range of techniques such as SEM, XRD, and contact angle goniometry. The water permeability and molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO) of the substrate; and the FO performance of the TFC membrane were also determined. The Zn2GeO4-modified membrane showed ~45% increase in water permeability and NaCl salt rejection of 80% under RO mode. In FO mode, the ratio of water flux to reverse solute flux was also improved. However, lower FO flux was obtained which could be due to ICP. The result shows that Zn2GO4 nanowire may be used as a modifier to the substrate to improve the quality of the polyamide layer on the substrate to improve the flux and selectivity, but not as effective in reducing ICP. This work demonstrates that the incorporation of nanomaterials to the membrane substrate may be an alternative approach to improve the formation of polyamide skin layer to achieve better FO performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: forward osmosis (FO); polyamide; polyethersulfone (PES); thin film composite (TFC); internal concentration polarization (ICP); membrane; germanate forward osmosis (FO); polyamide; polyethersulfone (PES); thin film composite (TFC); internal concentration polarization (ICP); membrane; germanate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Low, Z.-X.; Liu, Q.; Shamsaei, E.; Zhang, X.; Wang, H. Preparation and Characterization of Thin-Film Composite Membrane with Nanowire-Modified Support for Forward Osmosis Process. Membranes 2015, 5, 136-149.

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