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Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes
State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Institute of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387, China
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Received: 12 October 2013; in revised form: 9 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 21 November 2013
Abstract: Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes were prepared by non solvent induced phase separation (NIPS), melt spinning and the solution-cast method. The effect of preparation methods with different membrane formation mechanisms on crystallization behavior and tensile strength of PVDF membranes was investigated. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to examine the crystal form of the surface layers and the overall membranes, respectively. Spherulite morphologies and thermal behavior of the membranes were studied by polarized light optical microscopy (PLO) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) separately. It was found that the crystallization behavior of PVDF membranes was closely related to the preparation methods. For membranes prepared by the NIPS method, the skin layers had a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase, and the total crystallinity was 60.0% with no spherulite. For melt spinning membranes, the surface layers also showed a mixture of α and β phases, the overall membranes were predominantly α phase. The total crystallinity was 48.7% with perfect spherulites. Whereas the crystallization behavior of solution-cast membranes was related to the evaporation temperature and the additive, when the evaporation temperature was 140 °C with a soluble additive in the dope solution, obvious spherulites appeared. The crystalline morphology of PVDF exerted a great influence on the tensile strength of the membranes, which was much higher with perfect spherulites.
Keywords: poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes; preparation methods; crystallization; tensile strength
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Liu, J.; Lu, X.; Wu, C. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes. Membranes 2013, 3, 389-405.
Liu J, Lu X, Wu C. Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes. Membranes. 2013; 3(4):389-405.
Liu, Jie; Lu, Xiaolong; Wu, Chunrui. 2013. "Effect of Preparation Methods on Crystallization Behavior and Tensile Strength of Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Membranes." Membranes 3, no. 4: 389-405.