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Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue # N1-1B-35, 639798, Singapore
Singapore Membrane Technology Center, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2013; in revised form: 24 June 2013 / Accepted: 24 June 2013 / Published: 4 July 2013
Abstract: This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination.
Keywords: desalination; water reuse; reverse osmosis (RO); pressure retarded osmosis (PRO); synergy; co-location
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Sim, V.S.; She, Q.; Chong, T.H.; Tang, C.Y.; Fane, A.G.; Krantz, W.B. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO). Membranes 2013, 3, 98-125.
Sim VS, She Q, Chong TH, Tang CY, Fane AG, Krantz WB. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO). Membranes. 2013; 3(3):98-125.
Sim, Victor S.; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy H.; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Fane, Anthony G.; Krantz, William B. 2013. "Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)." Membranes 3, no. 3: 98-125.