Membranes 2011, 1(4), 265-274; doi:10.3390/membranes1040265
Article

Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation

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Received: 7 September 2011; in revised form: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 September 2011 / Published: 26 September 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Membrane Morphogenesis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Cell-sized lipid bilayer membrane vesicles (giant vesicles, GVs) or semi-vesicles were formed from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine on a platinum electrode under applied electric voltage by electroformation. Micromanipulation of the semi-vesicle by first pressing its membrane with a glass microneedle and then withdrawing the needle left a GV in the interior of the vesicle. During the process, an aqueous solution of Ficoll that filled the needle was introduced into the newly formed inner vesicle and remained encapsulated. Approximately 50% of attempted micromanipulation resulted in the formation of an inner daughter vesicle, “microvesiculation”. By repeating the microvesiculation process, multiple inner GVs could be formed in a single parent semi-vesicle. A semi-vesicle with inner GVs could be detached from the electrode by scraping with a microneedle, yielding an oligovesicular vesicle (OVV) with desired inner aqueous contents. Microvesiculation of a GV held on the tip of a glass micropipette was also possible, and this also produced an OVV. Breaking the membrane of the parent semi-vesicle by micromanipulation with a glass needle after microvesiculation, released the inner GVs. This protocol may be used for controlled formation of GVs with desired contents.
Keywords: electroformation; electroswelling; giant vesicles; giant liposomes; oligovesicular vesicles; micromanipulation; microvesiculation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okumura, Y.; Ohmiya, T.; Yamazaki, T. Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation. Membranes 2011, 1, 265-274.

AMA Style

Okumura Y, Ohmiya T, Yamazaki T. Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation. Membranes. 2011; 1(4):265-274.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okumura, Yukihisa; Ohmiya, Tohru; Yamazaki, Toshiki. 2011. "Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation." Membranes 1, no. 4: 265-274.

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