Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation
Department of Chemistry and Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 September 2011; in revised form: 20 September 2011 / Accepted: 21 September 2011 / Published: 26 September 2011
Abstract: Cell-sized lipid bilayer membrane vesicles (giant vesicles, GVs) or semi-vesicles were formed from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine on a platinum electrode under applied electric voltage by electroformation. Micromanipulation of the semi-vesicle by first pressing its membrane with a glass microneedle and then withdrawing the needle left a GV in the interior of the vesicle. During the process, an aqueous solution of Ficoll that filled the needle was introduced into the newly formed inner vesicle and remained encapsulated. Approximately 50% of attempted micromanipulation resulted in the formation of an inner daughter vesicle, “microvesiculation”. By repeating the microvesiculation process, multiple inner GVs could be formed in a single parent semi-vesicle. A semi-vesicle with inner GVs could be detached from the electrode by scraping with a microneedle, yielding an oligovesicular vesicle (OVV) with desired inner aqueous contents. Microvesiculation of a GV held on the tip of a glass micropipette was also possible, and this also produced an OVV. Breaking the membrane of the parent semi-vesicle by micromanipulation with a glass needle after microvesiculation, released the inner GVs. This protocol may be used for controlled formation of GVs with desired contents.
Keywords: electroformation; electroswelling; giant vesicles; giant liposomes; oligovesicular vesicles; micromanipulation; microvesiculation
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Okumura, Y.; Ohmiya, T.; Yamazaki, T. Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation. Membranes 2011, 1, 265-274.
Okumura Y, Ohmiya T, Yamazaki T. Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation. Membranes. 2011; 1(4):265-274.
Okumura, Yukihisa; Ohmiya, Tohru; Yamazaki, Toshiki. 2011. "Formation of Oligovesicular Vesicles by Micromanipulation." Membranes 1, no. 4: 265-274.