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Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 36; doi:10.3390/antiox6020036

Hormetic Property of Ginseng Steroids on Anti-Oxidant Status against Exercise Challenge in Rat Skeletal Muscle

1
Graduate Institute of Sports Training, University of Taipei, 11153 Taipei, Taiwan
2
Department of Leisure Industry and Health Promotion, National Ilan University, 26047 Ilan, Taiwan
3
Department of Sports Sciences, University of Taipei, 11153 Taipei, Taiwan
4
Department of Anesthesiology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, 22060 New Taipei, Taiwan
5
Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung, Taiwan
6
Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, 41354 Taichung, Taiwan
7
Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung, Taiwan
8
Department of Exercise and Health Science, National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, 11219 Taipei, Taiwan
9
Pegasus Pharmaceuticals Group Inc. Richmond, V6X 1Z7 BC, Canada
These authors equally contributed to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Athanasios Jamurtas
Received: 12 March 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 15 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract

Background: Existing literature on anti-oxidant capacity of ginseng has been inconsistent due to variance in the profile of ginseng steroids (Ginsenosides) that is because of differences in seasons and species. Methods: We used various doses of ginseng steroids to determine its effect on oxidative stress and anti-oxidant capacity of rat skeletal muscle against exercise. Results: Under non-exercise conditions, we found increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels and decreased reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH/GSSG) in rat skeletal muscle as dose increases (p < 0.05), which indicates the pro-oxidant property of ginseng steroids at baseline. Intriguingly, exhaustive exercise-induced increased TBARS and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were attenuated with low and medium doses of ginseng steroids (20 and 40 mg per kg), but not with high dose (120 mg per kg). At rest, anti-oxidant enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were increased above vehicle-treated level, but not with the high dose, suggesting a hormetic dose-response of ginseng steroids. Conclusion: The results of this study provide an explanation for the inconsistent findings on anti-oxidative property among previous ginseng studies. For optimizing the anti-oxidant outcome, ginseng supplementation at high dose should be avoided. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptogen; anti-oxidant enzyme; ginsenosides; MDA; ROS; dammarane sapogenins adaptogen; anti-oxidant enzyme; ginsenosides; MDA; ROS; dammarane sapogenins
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, M.-F.; Yu, S.-H.; Korivi, M.; Jean, W.-H.; Lee, S.-D.; Huang, C.-Y.; Liao, Y.-H.; Lu, J.; Kuo, C.-H. Hormetic Property of Ginseng Steroids on Anti-Oxidant Status against Exercise Challenge in Rat Skeletal Muscle. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 36.

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