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Antioxidants 2017, 6(3), 63; doi:10.3390/antiox6030063

The Ability of Exercise-Associated Oxidative Stress to Trigger Redox-Sensitive Signalling Responses

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cardiff School of Health Sciences, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff CF5 2YB, UK
2
Physiology and Health, Cardiff School of Sport, Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff CF23 6XD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 July 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Induced Muscle Damage and Oxidative Stress)
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Abstract

In this review, we discuss exercise as an oxidative stressor, and elucidate the mechanisms and downstream consequences of exercise-induced oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated in the mitochondria of contracting skeletal myocytes; also, their diffusion across the myocyte membrane allows their transport to neighbouring muscle tissue and to other regions of the body. Although very intense exercise can induce oxidative damage within myocytes, the magnitudes of moderate-intensity exercise-associated increases in ROS are quite modest (~two-fold increases in intracellular and extracellular ROS concentrations during exercise), and so the effects of such increases are likely to involve redox-sensitive signalling effects rather than oxidative damage. Therefore, the responses of muscle and non-muscle cells to exercise-associated redox-sensitive signalling effects will be reviewed; for example, transcription factors such as Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and Liver X-Receptor-alpha (LXRα) comprise redox-activable signalling systems, and we and others have reported exercise-associated modulation of PPARγ and/or LXRα-regulated genes in skeletal myocyte and in non-muscle cell-types such as monocyte-macrophages. Finally, the consequences of such responses in the context of management of chronic inflammatory conditions, and also their implications for the design of exercise training programmes (particularly the use of dietary antioxidants alongside exercise), will be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: free-radicals; oxidative stress; redox-sensitive cell signalling; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ); liver X-receptor-alpha (LXRα); chronic inflammatory conditions; hormesis free-radicals; oxidative stress; redox-sensitive cell signalling; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ); liver X-receptor-alpha (LXRα); chronic inflammatory conditions; hormesis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Webb, R.; Hughes, M.G.; Thomas, A.W.; Morris, K. The Ability of Exercise-Associated Oxidative Stress to Trigger Redox-Sensitive Signalling Responses. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 63.

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