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Antioxidants 2016, 5(3), 29; doi:10.3390/antiox5030029

Effects of (+)-Catechin on the Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Full-Fat Cheese during Ripening and Recovery of (+)-Catechin after Simulated In Vitro Digestion

1
Department of Food Science, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Riddet Institute, Private Bag 11 222, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Volker Böhm
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 27 August 2016
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Abstract

(+)-Catechin, the representative catechin in green tea, was incorporated into a full-fat cheese (at 125–500 ppm) followed by ripening for 90 days at 8 °C and digesting for six hours. Determination of pH, proximate composition, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) after manufacture and ripening demonstrated that the addition of (+)-catechin significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased the pH of both whey and curd during cheese manufacturing and ripening with no significant (p > 0.05) effect on the moisture, protein and fat contents. (+)-Catechin increased TPC, as well as AA, though the increase was not proportional with increasing the concentration of added (+)-catechin. About 57%–69% of (+)-catechin was retained in the cheese curd, whereas about 19%–39% (depending on the concentration) was recovered from the cheese digesta. Transmission electron micrographs showed that the ripened control cheese had a homogeneous pattern of milk fat globules with regular spacing entrapped in a homogenous structure of casein proteins, whereas the addition of (+)-catechin disrupted this homogenous structure. The apparent interaction between (+)-catechin and cheese fat globules was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These associations should be taken into account when incorporating antioxidants, such as (+)-catechin, to create functional dairy products, such as cheese. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenol; green tea; functional cheese; cheese microstructure polyphenol; green tea; functional cheese; cheese microstructure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rashidinejad, A.; Birch, E.J.; Everett, D.W. Effects of (+)-Catechin on the Composition, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Full-Fat Cheese during Ripening and Recovery of (+)-Catechin after Simulated In Vitro Digestion. Antioxidants 2016, 5, 29.

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