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Antioxidants 2015, 4(3), 603-646; doi:10.3390/antiox4030603

Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Their Derivatives as Natural Antioxidants

School of Natural System, College of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Burritt
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 14 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
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Abstract

Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are water-soluble molecules that absorb UV-A and UV-B radiation and disperse the energy as heat. MAAs show great diversity in their molecular structures, which exhibit a range of molecular weights spanning 188 to 1050 Daltons. MAAs are utilized in a wide variety of organisms including prokaryotes and eukaryotic micro-organisms that inhabit aquatic, terrestrial, and marine environments. These features suggest that MAAs are stable and fundamental molecules that allow these organisms to live under UV irradiation. MAAs are thought to have been greatly important to ancient forms of life on Earth, functioning as a primary sunscreen to reduce short-wavelength light. Structurally different MAAs might have been developed in MAA-producing organisms during their environmental adaptation. Harmful irradiation directly damages biomolecules, including lipids, proteins and DNA, and induces oxidative stress through radical-propagating processes. Thus, MAAs are expected to play an additional role in the antioxidant system. This review focuses on MAAs with radical scavenging activities. To cover all the reported MAAs known thus far, we surveyed the CAS database and have summarized the structures and the chemical and physical properties of these MAAs, including their antioxidant activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycosporine-like amino acids; pigment; sun screening; radical scavenging; antioxidant; glycosylation; anhydrobiosis mycosporine-like amino acids; pigment; sun screening; radical scavenging; antioxidant; glycosylation; anhydrobiosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wada, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Matsugo, S. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids and Their Derivatives as Natural Antioxidants. Antioxidants 2015, 4, 603-646.

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