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Antioxidants 2014, 3(4), 700-712; doi:10.3390/antiox3040700

Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves

1
School of Environmental & Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
2
Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University Global Campus, Incheon 406-840, South Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 August 2014 / Revised: 27 August 2014 / Accepted: 3 September 2014 / Published: 23 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products as Antioxidants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2379 KB, uploaded 23 October 2014]   |  

Abstract

Olive leaves are an agricultural waste of the olive-oil industry representing up to 10% of the dry weight arriving at olive mills. Disposal of this waste adds additional expense to farmers. Olive leaves have been shown to have a high concentration of phenolic compounds. In an attempt to utilize this waste product for phenolic compounds, we optimized their extraction using water—a “green” extraction solvent that has not yet been investigated for this purpose. Experiments were carried out according to a Box Behnken design, and the best possible combination of temperature, extraction time and sample-to-solvent ratio for the extraction of phenolic compounds with a high antioxidant activity was obtained using RSM; the optimal conditions for the highest yield of phenolic compounds was 90 °C for 70 min at a sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:100 g/mL; however, at 1:60 g/mL, we retained 80% of the total phenolic compounds and maximized antioxidant capacity. Therefore the sample-to-solvent ratio of 1:60 was chosen as optimal and used for further validation. The validation test fell inside the confidence range indicated by the RSM output; hence, the statistical model was trusted. The proposed method is inexpensive, easily up-scaled to industry and shows potential as an additional source of income for olive growers. View Full-Text
Keywords: olive leaves; phenolic compounds; green extraction solvents; waste valorisation; Olea europaea; response surface methodology (RSM) olive leaves; phenolic compounds; green extraction solvents; waste valorisation; Olea europaea; response surface methodology (RSM)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Goldsmith, C.D.; Vuong, Q.V.; Stathopoulos, C.E.; Roach, P.D.; Scarlett, C.J. Optimization of the Aqueous Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Olive Leaves. Antioxidants 2014, 3, 700-712.

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