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Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon
CRA-Ex INRAN (National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition), Via Ardeatina 546, Rome 00178, Italy
Department of Science and Technologies for Agriculture, Forestry, Nature and Energy (DAFNE), Tuscia University, Via San Camillo De Lellis snc, Viterbo 01100, Italy
Technical Unit for Sustainable Development and Innovation of Agro-Industrial System (UTAGRI), ENEA, Casaccia C.R., Via Anguillarese 301, Rome 00123, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 April 2013; in revised form: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 17 June 2013
Abstract: The artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus L.), the cultivated cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. altilis DC.) and the wild cardoon (Cynara cardunculus var. sylvestris L.) are species widely distributed in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of seeds from lines of artichoke and cultivated and wild cardoon in both aqueous-organic extracts and their residues by FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) and TEAC (Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) evaluations. Both artichoke and cardoon seeds are a good source of antioxidants. Among artichoke seeds, hydrolysable polyphenols contribution to antioxidant properties ranged from 41% to 78% for FRAP values and from 17% to 37% for TEAC values. No difference between cultivated and wild cardoon in antioxidant properties are reported. Our results could provide information about the potential industrial use and application of artichoke and/or cardoon seeds.
Keywords: Cynara cardunculus; seeds; aqueous-organic extract; residue; FRAP; TEAC
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Durazzo, A.; Foddai, M.S.; Temperini, A.; Azzini, E.; Venneria, E.; Lucarini, M.; Finotti, E.; Maiani, G.; Crinò, P.; Saccardo, F.; Maiani, G. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon. Antioxidants 2013, 2, 52-61.
Durazzo A, Foddai MS, Temperini A, Azzini E, Venneria E, Lucarini M, Finotti E, Maiani G, Crinò P, Saccardo F, Maiani G. Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon. Antioxidants. 2013; 2(2):52-61.
Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria S.; Temperini, Andrea; Azzini, Elena; Venneria, Eugenia; Lucarini, Massimo; Finotti, Enrico; Maiani, Gianluca; Crinò, Paola; Saccardo, Francesco; Maiani, Giuseppe. 2013. "Antioxidant Properties of Seeds from Lines of Artichoke, Cultivated Cardoon and Wild Cardoon." Antioxidants 2, no. 2: 52-61.