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From the third issue of 2017, Microarrays has changed its name to High-Throughput.

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Microarrays 2017, 6(1), 3; doi:10.3390/microarrays6010003

Microarray Technology Applied to Human Allergic Disease

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA
Academic Editor: Phillip Stafford
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 12 January 2017 / Accepted: 19 January 2017 / Published: 28 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microarrays in Immunology Research)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [539 KB, uploaded 6 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

IgE antibodies serve as the gatekeeper for the release of mediators from sensitized (IgE positive) mast cells and basophils following a relevant allergen exposure which can lead to an immediate-type hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction. Purified recombinant and native allergens were combined in the 1990s with state of the art chip technology to establish the first microarray-based IgE antibody assay. Triplicate spots to over 100 allergenic molecules are immobilized on an amine-activated glass slide to form a single panel multi-allergosorbent assay. Human antibodies, typically of the IgE and IgG isotypes, specific for one or many allergens bind to their respective allergen(s) on the chip. Following removal of unbound serum proteins, bound IgE antibody is detected with a fluorophore-labeled anti-human IgE reagent. The fluorescent profile from the completed slide provides a sensitization profile of an allergic patient which can identify IgE antibodies that bind to structurally similar (cross-reactive) allergen families versus molecules that are unique to a single allergen specificity. Despite its ability to rapidly analyze many IgE antibody specificities in a single simple assay format, the chip-based microarray remains less analytically sensitive and quantitative than its singleplex assay counterpart (ImmunoCAP, Immulite). Microgram per mL quantities of allergen-specific IgG antibody can also complete with nanogram per mL quantities of specific IgE for limited allergen binding sites on the chip. Microarray assays, while not used in clinical immunology laboratories for routine patient IgE antibody testing, will remain an excellent research tool for defining sensitization profiles of populations in epidemiological studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: IgE; human; immunoenzymetric assay; immunosorbent allergen chip; ISAC; serodiagnosis; microarray; molecular allergen; allergen extract; component resolved diagnosis IgE; human; immunoenzymetric assay; immunosorbent allergen chip; ISAC; serodiagnosis; microarray; molecular allergen; allergen extract; component resolved diagnosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hamilton, R.G. Microarray Technology Applied to Human Allergic Disease. Microarrays 2017, 6, 3.

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