Next Article in Journal
Education and Income Predict Future Emotional Well-Being of Whites but Not Blacks: A Ten-Year Cohort
Previous Article in Journal
Neuroprotective Role of N-acetylcysteine against Learning Deficits and Altered Brain Neurotransmitters in Rat Pups Subjected to Prenatal Stress
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reelin Haploinsufficiency and Late-Adolescent Corticosterone Treatment Induce Long-Lasting and Female-Specific Molecular Changes in the Dorsal Hippocampus
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(7), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8070121

On the Developmental Timing of Stress: Delineating Sex-Specific Effects of Stress across Development on Adult Behavior

1
Department of Psychiatry, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton 3168, Australia
2
Center for Neurogenetics, Brain & Mind Research Institute, New York, NY 10065, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 May 2018 / Revised: 26 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 29 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Differences in the Healthy and Diseased Brain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [738 KB, uploaded 29 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Stress, and the chronic overactivation of major stress hormones, is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, clinical literature on the exact role of stress either as a causative, triggering, or modulatory factor to mental illness remains unclear. We suggest that the impact of stress on the brain and behavior is heavily dependent on the developmental timing at which the stress has occurred, and as such, this may contribute to the overall variability reported on the association of stress and mental illness. Here, animal models provide a way to comprehensively assess the temporal impact of stress on behavior in a controlled manner. This review particularly focuses on the long-term impact of stress on behavior in various rodent stress models at three major developmental time points: early life, adolescence, and adulthood. We characterize the various stressor paradigms into physical, social, and pharmacological, and discuss commonalities and differences observed across these various stress-inducing methods. In addition, we discuss here how sex can influence the impact of stress at various developmental time points. We conclude here that early postnatal life and adolescence represent particular periods of vulnerability, but that stress exposure during early life can sometimes lead to resilience, particularly to fear-potentiated memories. In the adult brain, while shorter periods of stress tended to enhance spatial memory, longer periods caused impairments. Overall, males tended to be more vulnerable to the long-term effects of early life and adolescent stress, albeit very few studies incorporate both sexes, and further well-powered sex comparisons are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: stress; animal models; development; sex; behaviour; HPA-axis stress; animal models; development; sex; behaviour; HPA-axis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Schroeder, A.; Notaras, M.; Du, X.; Hill, R.A. On the Developmental Timing of Stress: Delineating Sex-Specific Effects of Stress across Development on Adult Behavior. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 121.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top