Next Article in Journal
Adaptive Deep Brain Stimulation (aDBS) for Tourette Syndrome
Previous Article in Journal
Stimulation and Neuromodulation in the Treatment of Epilepsy
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Brain Sci. 2018, 8(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci8010003

A Prospective Birth Cohort Study on Maternal Cholesterol Levels and Offspring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insight on Sex Differences

1
Center on the Early Life Origins of Disease, Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
3
Wendy Klag Center for Autism and Developmental Disabilities & Department of Mental Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, 1 Boston Medical Center Place, Boston, MA 02118, USA
5
Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
6
Stanley Manne Children’s Research Institute, Mary Ann & J. Milburn Smith Child Health Research, Outreach and Advocacy Center, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, 225 E Chicago Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
7
Integrated Research Center for Fetal Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans St, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
8
Division of General Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans St, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 20 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [607 KB, uploaded 23 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Growing evidence suggests that maternal cholesterol levels are important in the offspring’s brain growth and development. Previous studies on cholesterols and brain functions were mostly in adults. We sought to examine the prospective association between maternal cholesterol levels and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring. We analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, enrolled at birth and followed from birth up to age 15 years. The final analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs: 303 children with ADHD, and 1176 neurotypical children without clinician-diagnosed neurodevelopmental disorders. The median age of the first diagnosis of ADHD was seven years. The multiple logistic regression results showed that a low maternal high-density lipoprotein level (≤60 mg/dL) was associated with an increased risk of ADHD, compared to a higher maternal high-density lipoprotein level, after adjusting for pertinent covariables. A “J” shaped relationship was observed between triglycerides and ADHD risk. The associations with ADHD for maternal high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were more pronounced among boys. The findings based on this predominantly urban low-income minority birth cohort raise a new mechanistic perspective for understanding the origins of ADHD and the gender differences and future targets in the prevention of ADHD. View Full-Text
Keywords: high-density lipoprotein; triglyceride; sex difference; ADHD high-density lipoprotein; triglyceride; sex difference; ADHD
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ji, Y.; Riley, A.W.; Lee, L.-C.; Volk, H.; Hong, X.; Wang, G.; Angomas, R.; Stivers, T.; Wahl, A.; Ji, H.; Bartell, T.R.; Burd, I.; Paige, D.; Fallin, M.D.; Zuckerman, B.; Wang, X. A Prospective Birth Cohort Study on Maternal Cholesterol Levels and Offspring Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: New Insight on Sex Differences. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 3.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top