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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 157; doi:10.3390/brainsci7120157

Long Term Depression in Rat Hippocampus and the Effect of Ethanol during Fetal Life

INSERM ERI-24, GRAP, Groupe de Recherche sur l’Alcool et les Pharmacodépendances, Centre Universitaire de Recherche en Sante CHU-Sud, Université Picardie Jules Verne, Chemin du Thil, 80025 Amiens, France
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 20 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alcohol Induced Central Nervous System Damage)
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Abstract

Alcohol (ethanol) disturbs cognitive functions including learning and memory in humans, non-human primates, and laboratory animals such as rodents. As studied in animals, cellular mechanisms for learning and memory include bidirectional synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP), and long-term depression (LTD), primarily in the hippocampus. Most of the research in the field of alcohol has analyzed the effects of ethanol on LTP; however, with recent advances in the understanding of the physiological role of LTD in learning and memory, some authors have examined the effects of ethanol exposure on this particular signal. In the present review, I will focus on hippocampal LTD recorded in rodents and the effects of fetal alcohol exposure on this signal. A synthesis of the findings indicates that prenatal ethanol exposure disturbs LTD concurrently with LTP in offspring and that both glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmissions are altered and contribute to LTD disturbances. Although the ultimate mode of action of ethanol on these two transmitter systems is not yet clear, novel suggestions have recently appeared in the literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; long-term potentiation; long term depression; hippocampus; memory; prenatal; fetal; GluN2B; KCC2 ethanol; long-term potentiation; long term depression; hippocampus; memory; prenatal; fetal; GluN2B; KCC2
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pierrefiche, O. Long Term Depression in Rat Hippocampus and the Effect of Ethanol during Fetal Life. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 157.

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