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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(1), 10; doi:10.3390/brainsci7010010

Contributions of Letter-Speech Sound Learning and Visual Print Tuning to Reading Improvement: Evidence from Brain Potential and Dyslexia Training Studies

1
Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1018 WS, The Netherlands
2
Rudolf Berlin Center, Amsterdam 1018 WS, The Netherlands
3
Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
4
Maastricht Brain Imaging Center, Maastricht University, Maastricht 6200 MD, The Netherlands
5
IWAL Institute, Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1001 EW, The Netherlands
6
Amsterdam Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam 1018 WT, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Heather Bortfeld
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Audiovisual Integration in Early Language Development)
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Abstract

We use a neurocognitive perspective to discuss the contribution of learning letter-speech sound (L-SS) associations and visual specialization in the initial phases of reading in dyslexic children. We review findings from associative learning studies on related cognitive skills important for establishing and consolidating L-SS associations. Then we review brain potential studies, including our own, that yielded two markers associated with reading fluency. Here we show that the marker related to visual specialization (N170) predicts word and pseudoword reading fluency in children who received additional practice in the processing of morphological word structure. Conversely, L-SS integration (indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN)) may only remain important when direct orthography to semantic conversion is not possible, such as in pseudoword reading. In addition, the correlation between these two markers supports the notion that multisensory integration facilitates visual specialization. Finally, we review the role of implicit learning and executive functions in audiovisual learning in dyslexia. Implications for remedial research are discussed and suggestions for future studies are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: reading; dyslexia; ERP; MMN; N170; letter-speech sound integration; associative learning reading; dyslexia; ERP; MMN; N170; letter-speech sound integration; associative learning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fraga González, G.; Žarić, G.; Tijms, J.; Bonte, M.; van der Molen, M.W. Contributions of Letter-Speech Sound Learning and Visual Print Tuning to Reading Improvement: Evidence from Brain Potential and Dyslexia Training Studies. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 10.

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