Next Article in Journal
Preconditioning of Spatial and Auditory Cues: Roles of the Hippocampus, Frontal Cortex, and Cue-Directed Attention
Next Article in Special Issue
Evaluation of Teaching Signals for Motor Control in the Cerebellum during Real-World Robot Application
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Phase- and Workload-Dependent Changes in Corticospinal Excitability to the Biceps and Triceps Brachii during Arm Cycling
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 61; doi:10.3390/brainsci6040061

Body-Machine Interfaces after Spinal Cord Injury: Rehabilitation and Brain Plasticity

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
2
Sensory Motor Performance Program, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60611, USA
3
Department of Physiology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
4
Department of Informatics, Bioengineering, Robotics, and Systems Engineering at the University of Genoa, 16145 Genoa, Italy
5
Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bernadette Murphy
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 6 December 2016 / Accepted: 12 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motor Control and Brain Plasticity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3635 KB, uploaded 19 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to identify rehabilitative effects and changes in white matter microstructure in people with high-level spinal cord injury following bilateral upper-extremity motor skill training. Five subjects with high-level (C5–C6) spinal cord injury (SCI) performed five visuo-spatial motor training tasks over 12 sessions (2–3 sessions per week). Subjects controlled a two-dimensional cursor with bilateral simultaneous movements of the shoulders using a non-invasive inertial measurement unit-based body-machine interface. Subjects’ upper-body ability was evaluated before the start, in the middle and a day after the completion of training. MR imaging data were acquired before the start and within two days of the completion of training. Subjects learned to use upper-body movements that survived the injury to control the body-machine interface and improved their performance with practice. Motor training increased Manual Muscle Test scores and the isometric force of subjects’ shoulders and upper arms. Moreover, motor training increased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the cingulum of the left hemisphere by 6.02% on average, indicating localized white matter microstructure changes induced by activity-dependent modulation of axon diameter, myelin thickness or axon number. This body-machine interface may serve as a platform to develop a new generation of assistive-rehabilitative devices that promote the use of, and that re-strengthen, the motor and sensory functions that survived the injury. View Full-Text
Keywords: body-machine interface; spinal cord injury; rehabilitation; white matter plasticity; diffusion tensor imaging; motor skill learning body-machine interface; spinal cord injury; rehabilitation; white matter plasticity; diffusion tensor imaging; motor skill learning
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Seáñez-González, I.; Pierella, C.; Farshchiansadegh, A.; Thorp, E.B.; Wang, X.; Parrish, T.; Mussa-Ivaldi, F.A. Body-Machine Interfaces after Spinal Cord Injury: Rehabilitation and Brain Plasticity. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 61.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top