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Brain Sci. 2016, 6(4), 52; doi:10.3390/brainsci6040052

Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys

1
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
2
Behavioural Science Foundation, St. Kitts, Saint Kitts and Nevis
3
Departments of Human Genetics and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1A1, Canada
4
School of Optometry and Department of Physiology, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
5
Laboratory of Neuropschiatry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen DK-2200, Denmark
Deceased.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Balapal S. Basavarajappa
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 21 October 2016 / Accepted: 23 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3708 KB, uploaded 27 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus) to (1) investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2) determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years). Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation. View Full-Text
Keywords: proliferating progenitor cells; stereology; fetal alcohol; olfactory bulb; hippocampus; non-human primate proliferating progenitor cells; stereology; fetal alcohol; olfactory bulb; hippocampus; non-human primate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burke, M.W.; Inyatkin, A.; Ptito, M.; Ervin, F.R.; Palmour, R.M. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Affects Progenitor Cell Numbers in Olfactory Bulbs and Dentate Gyrus of Vervet Monkeys. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 52.

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