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Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 36; doi:10.3390/brainsci6030036

Three-Class EEG-Based Motor Imagery Classification Using Phase-Space Reconstruction Technique

EE Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
CS Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
Electrical Engineering Department, ENISo of Sousse, BP 264 Erriadh 4023, Sousse 4054, Tunisia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vaibhav Gandhiname
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brain-Computer Interfaces: Current Trends and Novel Applications)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1625 KB, uploaded 23 August 2016]   |  


Over the last few decades, brain signals have been significantly exploited for brain-computer interface (BCI) applications. In this paper, we study the extraction of features using event-related desynchronization/synchronization techniques to improve the classification accuracy for three-class motor imagery (MI) BCI. The classification approach is based on combining the features of the phase and amplitude of the brain signals using fast Fourier transform (FFT) and autoregressive (AR) modeling of the reconstructed phase space as well as the modification of the BCI parameters (trial length, trial frequency band, classification method). We report interesting results compared with those present in the literature by utilizing sequential forward floating selection (SFFS) and a multi-class linear discriminant analysis (LDA), our findings showed superior classification results, a classification accuracy of 86.06% and 93% for two BCI competition datasets, with respect to results from previous studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain-computer interface (BCI); motor imagery (MI); electroencephalogram EEG brain-computer interface (BCI); motor imagery (MI); electroencephalogram EEG

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Djemal, R.; Bazyed, A.G.; Belwafi, K.; Gannouni, S.; Kaaniche, W. Three-Class EEG-Based Motor Imagery Classification Using Phase-Space Reconstruction Technique. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 36.

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