Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
From Drug-Induced Developmental Neuroapoptosis to Pediatric Anesthetic Neurotoxicity—Where Are We Now?
Previous Article in Journal
Medication-Overuse Headache: Differences between Daily and Near-Daily Headache Patients
Previous Article in Special Issue
Maternal Malnutrition in the Etiopathogenesis of Psychiatric Diseases: Role of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(3), 31; doi:10.3390/brainsci6030031

Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain

1
Division of Neurochemisty, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Rd., Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA
3
Division of Analytical Psychopharmacology, Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Rd., Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Balapal S. Basavarajappa
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 16 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2283 KB, uploaded 16 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Ethanol induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain, which may partially explain the long-lasting adverse effects of prenatal ethanol exposure in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). While animal models of FASD show that ethanol-induced neurodegeneration is associated with glial activation, the relationship between glial activation and neurodegeneration has not been clarified. This review focuses on the roles of activated microglia and astrocytes in neurodegeneration triggered by ethanol in rodents during the early postnatal period (equivalent to the third trimester of human pregnancy). Previous literature indicates that acute binge-like ethanol exposure in postnatal day 7 (P7) mice induces apoptotic neurodegeneration, transient activation of microglia resulting in phagocytosis of degenerating neurons, and a prolonged increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. In our present study, systemic administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharides, which causes glial activation, attenuates ethanol-induced neurodegeneration. These studies suggest that activation of microglia and astrocytes by acute ethanol in the neonatal brain may provide neuroprotection. However, repeated or chronic ethanol can induce significant proinflammatory glial reaction and neurotoxicity. Further studies are necessary to elucidate whether acute or sustained glial activation caused by ethanol exposure in the developing brain can affect long-lasting cellular and behavioral abnormalities observed in the adult brain. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethanol; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; neurodegeneration; glial activation; neuroinflammation; microglia; astrocytes; lipopolysaccharides; developing brain; phagocytosis ethanol; fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; neurodegeneration; glial activation; neuroinflammation; microglia; astrocytes; lipopolysaccharides; developing brain; phagocytosis
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saito, M.; Chakraborty, G.; Hui, M.; Masiello, K.; Saito, M. Ethanol-Induced Neurodegeneration and Glial Activation in the Developing Brain. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 31.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top