Brain Sci. 2012, 2(2), 147-175; doi:10.3390/brainsci2020147
Review

The “Id” Knows More than the “Ego” Admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and Primal Consciousness Perspectives on the Interface Between Affective and Cognitive Neuroscience

1 Department of Psychology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town 7701, South Africa 2 Department of VCAPP, College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2012; in revised form: 2 March 2012 / Accepted: 22 March 2012 / Published: 17 April 2012
PDF Full-text Download PDF Full-Text [1102 KB, uploaded 17 April 2012 09:55 CEST]
Abstract: It is commonly believed that consciousness is a higher brain function. Here we consider the likelihood, based on abundant neuroevolutionary data that lower brain affective phenomenal experiences provide the “energy” for the developmental construction of higher forms of cognitive consciousness. This view is concordant with many of the theoretical formulations of Sigmund Freud. In this reconceptualization, all of consciousness may be dependent on the original evolution of affective phenomenal experiences that coded survival values. These subcortical energies provided a foundation that could be used for the epigenetic construction of perceptual and other higher forms of consciousness. From this perspective, perceptual experiences were initially affective at the primary-process brainstem level, but capable of being elaborated by secondary learning and memory processes into tertiary-cognitive forms of consciousness. Within this view, although all individual neural activities are unconscious, perhaps along with secondary-process learning and memory mechanisms, the primal sub-neocortical networks of emotions and other primal affects may have served as the sentient scaffolding for the construction of resolved perceptual and higher mental activities within the neocortex. The data supporting this neuro-psycho-evolutionary vision of the emergence of mind is discussed in relation to classical psychoanalytical models.
Keywords: affective consciousness; cognitive consciousness; brain evolution; mind evolution; emotions; perception; neuropsychoanalysis

Article Statistics

Load and display the download statistics.

Citations to this Article

Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Solms, M.; Panksepp, J. The “Id” Knows More than the “Ego” Admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and Primal Consciousness Perspectives on the Interface Between Affective and Cognitive Neuroscience. Brain Sci. 2012, 2, 147-175.

AMA Style

Solms M, Panksepp J. The “Id” Knows More than the “Ego” Admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and Primal Consciousness Perspectives on the Interface Between Affective and Cognitive Neuroscience. Brain Sciences. 2012; 2(2):147-175.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak. 2012. "The “Id” Knows More than the “Ego” Admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and Primal Consciousness Perspectives on the Interface Between Affective and Cognitive Neuroscience." Brain Sci. 2, no. 2: 147-175.

Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert