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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040480

Ca/Si and Si/Al Ratios of Metakaolinite-Based Wastes: Their Influence on Mineralogy and Mechanical Strengths

1
Departamento de Geología y Geoquímica, Unidad Asociada Geomateriales CSIC-UAM, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma, 28049 Madrid, Spain
2
Eduardo Torroja Institute (CSIC), 28033 Madrid, Spain
3
Institute for the Structure of Matter (IEM-CSIC), 28006 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Materials)
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Abstract

Kaolinite-based wastes are researched as an alternative means of extracting metakaolinite, a pozzolanic product for the manufacture of eco-efficient cements. However, both crystallinity and the content of this crystalline phase play important roles during their thermal activation and, therefore, in their subsequent behavior in the matrix with cementitious properties. In this study, the initial compositions of two thermally activated products (paper sludge and coal waste) are studied for both the mineralogy and the mechanical properties of binary cements. The elemental composition of the materials was analyzed with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The mineralogy of the crystalline materials was determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The sample morphology was determined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pozzolanic activity is measured by accelerated methods and the preparation of the specimens of blended cement is prepared following the procedure described by Kock-Steinegger. The results showed that the pozzolanic activity of the waste (in terms of fixed lime) was similar at 90 days but that its reaction rate was different. The pozzolanic reaction of both wastes produced stratlingite and C-S-H gels, with the presence of C4AH13. The C-S-H gel generated with coal waste had very short chains, was poorer in Ca and was rich in Al. The addition of both wastes to the cement modified its mineralogical composition in comparison with a conventional cement, favoring the formation of C4AH13 over the formation of ettringite. View Full-Text
Keywords: metakaolinite-based wastes; pozzolanic activity; mineralogy; blended cements; strengths metakaolinite-based wastes; pozzolanic activity; mineralogy; blended cements; strengths
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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García-Giménez, R.; Frias, M.; Vigil de la Villa, R.; Martínez-Ramírez, S. Ca/Si and Si/Al Ratios of Metakaolinite-Based Wastes: Their Influence on Mineralogy and Mechanical Strengths. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 480.

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