SampleCNN: End-to-End Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Using Very Small Filters for Music Classification†
AbstractConvolutional Neural Networks (CNN) have been applied to diverse machine learning tasks for different modalities of raw data in an end-to-end fashion. In the audio domain, a raw waveform-based approach has been explored to directly learn hierarchical characteristics of audio. However, the majority of previous studies have limited their model capacity by taking a frame-level structure similar to short-time Fourier transforms. We previously proposed a CNN architecture which learns representations using sample-level filters beyond typical frame-level input representations. The architecture showed comparable performance to the spectrogram-based CNN model in music auto-tagging. In this paper, we extend the previous work in three ways. First, considering the sample-level model requires much longer training time, we progressively downsample the input signals and examine how it affects the performance. Second, we extend the model using multi-level and multi-scale feature aggregation technique and subsequently conduct transfer learning for several music classification tasks. Finally, we visualize filters learned by the sample-level CNN in each layer to identify hierarchically learned features and show that they are sensitive to log-scaled frequency. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Lee, J.; Park, J.; Kim, K.L.; Nam, J. SampleCNN: End-to-End Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Using Very Small Filters for Music Classification. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 150.
Lee J, Park J, Kim KL, Nam J. SampleCNN: End-to-End Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Using Very Small Filters for Music Classification. Applied Sciences. 2018; 8(1):150.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lee, Jongpil; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Keunhyoung L.; Nam, Juhan. 2018. "SampleCNN: End-to-End Deep Convolutional Neural Networks Using Very Small Filters for Music Classification." Appl. Sci. 8, no. 1: 150.