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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 106; doi:10.3390/app8010106

Modeling kV X-ray-Induced Coloration in Radiochromic Films

1
Department of Physics, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China
2
Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Kragujevac 34000, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation Effects of Materials with Laser, Ion Beam and Rays)
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Abstract

Commercially available radiochromic films are primarily designed for clinical X-ray dosimetry. These films change color upon exposures to radiation as a result of solid-state polymerization (SSP). Built on a previous model developed for SSP upon exposures to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a new model was developed in the present work for X-ray-induced coloration in Gafchromic EBT3 films. Monte Carlo simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code were employed to model the transport and interaction of photons and the generated secondary electrons within the film active layer. The films were exposed to continuous-energy photon beams. The dose DE in the external radiation detector (i.e., ionization chamber) was determined and the realistic dose DA in the film active layer was then obtained using the calibration coefficient R (=DA/DE). The finite element method (FEM) was used to solve the classical steady-state Helmholtz equation using the multifrontal massively parallel sparse direct solver (MUMPS). An extensive grid independence test was carried out and the numerical stability of the present model was ensured. The reflected light intensity from the film surface was used to theoretically obtain the net reflective optical density of the film exposed to X-ray. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical results of the net reflective optical density of the film. For X-ray doses >~600 cGy, due to the already formed densely cross-linked structure in the active layer of the EBT3 film so further bond formation was less likely, the reflected light intensity from the film surface increased at a relatively lower rate when compared to those for dose values <~600 cGy. View Full-Text
Keywords: radiochromic film; EBT3 film; finite element method; parallel computation radiochromic film; EBT3 film; finite element method; parallel computation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shahmohammadi Beni, M.; Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.; Yu, K.N. Modeling kV X-ray-Induced Coloration in Radiochromic Films. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 106.

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