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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 940; doi:10.3390/app7090940

Competitive Evaluation of Planar Embedded Glass and Polymer Waveguides in Data Center Environments

Photonics Advanced Research Group, Seagate, Havant, Hampshire PO9 1SA, UK
Department of Applied Physics and Physico-Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522, Japan
Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V, Fraunhofer IZM, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, D-13355 Berlin, Germany
Technische Universität Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, D-13355 Berlin, Germany
Sumitomo Bakelite, Sumitomo Bakelite Co., Ltd., Tennoz Parkside Building 19 F, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Interconnects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [22234 KB, uploaded 13 September 2017]   |  


Optical printed circuit board (OPCB) waveguide materials and fabrication methods have advanced considerably over the past 15 years, giving rise to two classes of embedded planar graded index waveguide based on polymer and glass. We consider the performance of these two emerging waveguide classes in view of the anticipated deployment in data center environments of optical transceivers based on directly modulated multimode short wavelength VCSELs against those based on longer wavelength single-mode photonic integrated circuits. We describe the fabrication of graded index polymer waveguides, using the Mosquito and photo-addressing methods, and graded index glass waveguides, using ion diffusion on thin glass foils. A comparative characterization was carried out on the waveguide classes to show a clear reciprocal dependence of the performance of different waveguide classes on wavelength. Furthermore, the different waveguide types were connected into an optically disaggregated data switch and storage system to evaluate and validate their suitability for deployment in future data center environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: optical printed circuit board (OPCB); graded index waveguides; polymer waveguides; planar glass waveguides optical printed circuit board (OPCB); graded index waveguides; polymer waveguides; planar glass waveguides

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pitwon, R.; Wang, K.; Yamauchi, A.; Ishigure, T.; Schröder, H.; Neitz, M.; Singh, M. Competitive Evaluation of Planar Embedded Glass and Polymer Waveguides in Data Center Environments. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 940.

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