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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 927; doi:10.3390/app7090927

Optimal Control and Operation Strategy for Wind Turbines Contributing to Grid Primary Frequency Regulation

School of Energy System Engineering, Chung-Ang University, 84 Heukseok-ro, Dongjak-gu, Seoul 156-756, Korea
Received: 23 June 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Saving)
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Abstract

This study introduces a frequency regulation strategy to enable the participation of wind turbines with permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs). The optimal strategy focuses on developing the frequency support capability of PMSGs connected to the power system. Active power control is performed using maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and de-loaded control to supply the required power reserve following a disturbance. A kinetic energy (KE) reserve control is developed to enhance the frequency regulation capability of wind turbines. The coordination with the de-loaded control prevents instability in the PMSG wind system due to excessive KE discharge. A KE optimization method that maximizes the sum of the KE reserves at wind farms is also adopted to determine the de-loaded power reference for each PMSG wind turbine using the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control and operation strategy, three different case studies are conducted using the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation tool. The results demonstrate that the optimal strategy enhances the frequency support contribution from PMSG wind turbines. View Full-Text
Keywords: de-loaded control; frequency regulation; kinetic energy reserve control; maximum power point tracking; particle swarm optimization; permanent magnet synchronous generator de-loaded control; frequency regulation; kinetic energy reserve control; maximum power point tracking; particle swarm optimization; permanent magnet synchronous generator
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kim, M.-K. Optimal Control and Operation Strategy for Wind Turbines Contributing to Grid Primary Frequency Regulation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 927.

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