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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(9), 922; doi:10.3390/app7090922

Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to Complex Systems and Human Hyperscanning Networking

1
Research Unit in Affective and Social Neuroscience, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Gemelli 1, 20123 Milano, Italy
2
Department of Psychology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Largo Gemelli 1, 20123 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract

Concepts and techniques developed to investigate complex systems have found practical implications in the study of many complex physical, biological, and social phenomena. Social neuroscience is coherently moving to new investigation and analysis approaches to properly explore social dynamics and to qualify neural processes that mediate and define them. The present paper aims to sketch a global picture of the application of the concept of synchronization to study complex social systems and the neural signatures of interpersonal coupling during interaction dynamics. We then focus on an innovative experimental paradigm—hyperscanning—that allows researchers to sample, compare, and integrate information flows related to the bodily activities of two (or more) individuals involved in a shared naturalistic or experimentally-controlled task, thus giving the opportunity to explore inter-individual synchronization and inter-brain coupling. In particular, the potential of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a primary investigation tool in the field is discussed. Finally, we introduce the most-used quantification and analysis methods for hyperscanning applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: fNIRS; hyperscanning; complex systems; inter-brain synchronization; coherence analysis; social interaction; dynamical coupling fNIRS; hyperscanning; complex systems; inter-brain synchronization; coherence analysis; social interaction; dynamical coupling
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Crivelli, D.; Balconi, M. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to Complex Systems and Human Hyperscanning Networking. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 922.

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