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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 739; doi:10.3390/app7070739

Measurements of Thermally-Induced Curvatures and Warpages of Printed Circuit Board during a Solder Reflow Process Using Strain Gauges

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan
2
Inventec Corporation, Tao-Yuan 33547, Taiwan
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in IMPACT 2014, Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 2014.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Je Hoon Oh
Received: 22 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Electronics 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [7898 KB, uploaded 20 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Measurements of the curvatures and warpages of a printed circuit board (PCB) during a thermal solder reflow process using strain gauges are proposed in this study. In the experiments, a shadow moiré is used for measuring the out-of-plane deformations (or warpage) of a bi-material plate and a PCB with dual in-line memory module (DIMM) sockets during solder reflow heating, while the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the thermally-induced deformation of the PCB specimen for ensuring the validity of the measurement. Conventional strain gauges are employed to measure the strains (albeit as in-plane strain data) in both specimens during the solder reflow process. The results indicate that the strain gauge-measured strain data from the top and bottom surfaces of both specimens during the solder reflow can be converted into curvature data with specific equations, and even into global out-of-plane deformations or warpages with a proposed simple beam model. Such results are also consistent with those from the shadow moiré and FEM. Therefore, it has been proved that the strain gauge measurement associated with the simple beam model can provide a method for the real-time monitoring of PCB deformations or warpages with different temperatures during the solder reflow process. View Full-Text
Keywords: strain gauge; shadow moiré; warpage; printed circuit board; solder reflow; finite element method strain gauge; shadow moiré; warpage; printed circuit board; solder reflow; finite element method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, M.-C.; Huang, P.-S.; Lin, Y.-H.; Tsai, M.-Y.; Huang, C.-Y.; Huang, T.-C. Measurements of Thermally-Induced Curvatures and Warpages of Printed Circuit Board during a Solder Reflow Process Using Strain Gauges. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 739.

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