Next Article in Journal
A Polarization-Dependent Frequency-Selective Metamaterial Absorber with Multiple Absorption Peaks
Previous Article in Journal
Cycling Segments Multimodal Analysis and Classification Using Neural Networks
Previous Article in Special Issue
Sintering of Two Viscoelastic Particles: A Computational Approach
Article Menu
Issue 6 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 579; doi:10.3390/app7060579

Impact of the Fused Deposition (FDM) Printing Process on Polylactic Acid (PLA) Chemistry and Structure

1
Engineering Bldg. Rm 309, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2275, USA
2
Department of Physics, SUNY New Paltz, New Paltz, NY 12561, USA
3
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY 13901, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 18 May 2017 / Accepted: 25 May 2017 / Published: 4 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for 3D Printing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4407 KB, uploaded 5 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Polylactic acid (PLA) is an organic polymer commonly used in fused deposition (FDM) printing and biomedical scaffolding that is biocompatible and immunologically inert. However, variations in source material quality and chemistry make it necessary to characterize the filament and determine potential changes in chemistry occurring as a result of the FDM process. We used several spectroscopic techniques, including laser confocal microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and photoacousitc FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to characterize both the bulk and surface chemistry of the source material and printed samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize morphology, cold crystallinity, and the glass transition and melting temperatures following printing. Analysis revealed calcium carbonate-based additives which were reacted with organic ligands and potentially trace metal impurities, both before and following printing. These additives became concentrated in voids in the printed structure. This finding is important for biomedical applications as carbonate will impact subsequent cell growth on printed tissue scaffolds. Results of chemical analysis also provided evidence of the hygroscopic nature of the source material and oxidation of the printed surface, and SEM imaging revealed micro- and submicron-scale roughness that will also impact potential applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: PLA; fused deposition modeling (FDM); surface characterization; vibrational spectroscopy; laser confocal microscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy PLA; fused deposition modeling (FDM); surface characterization; vibrational spectroscopy; laser confocal microscopy; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cuiffo, M.A.; Snyder, J.; Elliott, A.M.; Romero, N.; Kannan, S.; Halada, G.P. Impact of the Fused Deposition (FDM) Printing Process on Polylactic Acid (PLA) Chemistry and Structure. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 579.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top