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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 546; doi:10.3390/app7060546

Control of the Polymorphism of Calcium Carbonate Produced by Self-Healing in the Cracked Part of Cementitious Materials

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido 090-8507, Japan
2
Faculty of Environmental Technology, Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido 090-8585, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2017 / Revised: 11 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 25 May 2017

Abstract

Cracking is an inherent development in reinforced concrete structures and can lead to serious damages during their service period. The repeated occurrence of such damages can enlarge the cracks, thereby allowing other deteriorating elements such as CO2 and Cl to further infiltrate the concrete, which can seriously compromise the concrete structure. This study focuses on the type of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) crystals generated by the self-healing phenomenon. Owing to polymorphism, CaCO3 has three types of crystal forms—calcite, vaterite, and aragonite—whose formation can be controlled by the temperature and pH. Vaterite has the highest density among these crystals, and it is expected to be capable of self-healing. Therefore, experiments were conducted to establish the conditions required to promote the generation of vaterite. A saturated Ca(OH)2 solution with CO2 nanobubbles (CN) was employed for effective self-healing. The temperature was controlled at 20, 40, and 60 °C, and the pH was controlled at 9.0, 10.5, and 12.0. The results showed that the self-healing of cracks occurred both on the surface and internally, and the main product of the self-healing phenomenon was vaterite in CaCO3 crystals at a pH of 9.0 and a temperature of 40 °C. Furthermore, the addition of a saturated Ca(OH)2 solution with CO2 nanobubbles (CN) resulted in the most effective self-healing of the surface and internal cracks. View Full-Text
Keywords: crack; Ca2+ ion; CO32 ion; CO2 nanobubble; self-healing; CaCO3; vaterite crack; Ca2+ ion; CO32 ion; CO2 nanobubble; self-healing; CaCO3; vaterite
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, H.; Choi, H.; Inoue, M.; Sengoku, R. Control of the Polymorphism of Calcium Carbonate Produced by Self-Healing in the Cracked Part of Cementitious Materials. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 546.

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