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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(6), 539; doi:10.3390/app7060539

Coordination of EVs Participation for Load Frequency Control in Isolated Microgrids

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Birjand, Birjand 9856, Iran
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: José L. Bernal-Agustín
Received: 30 April 2017 / Revised: 19 May 2017 / Accepted: 19 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017


Increasing the penetration levels of renewable energy sources (RESs) in microgrids (MGs) may lead to frequency instability issues due to intermittent nature of RESs and low inertia of MG generating units. On the other hand, presence of electric vehicles (EVs), as new high-electricity- consuming appliances, can be a good opportunity to contribute in mitigating the frequency deviations and help the system stability. This paper proposes an optimal charging/discharging scheduling of EVs with the goal of improving frequency stability of MG during autonomous operating condition. To this end, an efficient approach is applied to reschedule the generating units considering the EVs owners’ behaviors. An EV power controller (EVPC) is also designed to determine charge and discharge process of EVs based on the forecasted day-ahead load and renewable generation profiles. The performance of the proposed strategy is tested in different operating scenarios and compared to those from non-optimized methodologies. Numerical simulations indicate that the MG performance improves considerably in terms of economy and stability using the proposed strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgrid (MG); renewable energy sources (RESs); electric vehicle (EV); frequency stability; energy management strategy (EMS) microgrid (MG); renewable energy sources (RESs); electric vehicle (EV); frequency stability; energy management strategy (EMS)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Vahedipour-Dahraie, M.; Rashidizaheh-Kermani, H.; Najafi, H.R.; Anvari-Moghaddam, A.; Guerrero, J.M. Coordination of EVs Participation for Load Frequency Control in Isolated Microgrids. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 539.

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