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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(5), 514; doi:10.3390/app7050514

Development of Green Geopolymer Using Agricultural and Industrial Waste Materials with High Water Absorbency

Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
Centre for Advanced Materials & Industrial Chemistry, School of Applied Science RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001, Australia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia
Catalysts and Organic Synthesis Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 1684613114, Tehran, Iran
Department of Chemistry, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4416, Tehran, Iran
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nora Fung-yee TAM
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 17 April 2017 / Accepted: 18 April 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Geopolymer is a promising porous material that can be used for evaporative cooling applications. Developing a greener geopolymer using agricultural and industrial wastes is a promising research area. In this study, we utilize rice husk (RH), rice husk ash (RHA), metakaolin (MK), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), and palm oil fuel ash (POFA) to prepare geopolymer pastes, with alkali liquid as an activator. Many geopolymer samples have been prepared as per the Design of Experimental software (DOE), and its corresponding response surface mode and central composite design and later they were characterized. The samples were cured in an oven for 2 h at 80 °C, and thereafter stored at room temperature (~25–30 °C) prior to being tested for its water absorption and compressive strength. The effect of the different composition of precursors on water absorption, density, porosity, and the compressive strength of the prepared geopolymers have been investigated. The results showed that the compressive strength of geopolymers is directly proportional to the ratio of the alkali liquid. Post-optimization, the best geopolymer paste mixture was confirmed to contain 10% of RH, 15% RHA, 35% MK, 10% POFA and 30% of GGBS, with 72% desirability for maximum water absorption (~38%) and compressive strength (4.9 MPa). The results confirmed its applicability for evaporative cooling. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural materials; geopolymer; compressive strength; water absorption agricultural materials; geopolymer; compressive strength; water absorption

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Emdadi, Z.; Asim, N.; Amin, M.H.; Ambar Yarmo, M.; Maleki, A.; Azizi, M.; Sopian, K. Development of Green Geopolymer Using Agricultural and Industrial Waste Materials with High Water Absorbency. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 514.

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