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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(4), 334; doi:10.3390/app7040334

Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

1
Department of Applied Physics I, Faculty of Physics, University Complutense of Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Laboratory of Materials Engineering and Environment, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, 30000 Fez, Morocco
3
Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies of Water (IMDEA Water Institute), Avda. Punto Com 2, Alcalá de Henares, 28805 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bart Van der Bruggen
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 17 March 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 29 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Distillation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2748 KB, uploaded 30 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD), osmotic distillation (OD) and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD) use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED), membrane capacitive deionization (MCD), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF), microfiltration (MF), etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling), fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application. View Full-Text
Keywords: membrane distillation; osmotic distillation; osmotic membrane distillation; fouling; organic fouling; scaling; biofouling; fouling characterization; fouling reduction; antiscalant membrane distillation; osmotic distillation; osmotic membrane distillation; fouling; organic fouling; scaling; biofouling; fouling characterization; fouling reduction; antiscalant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Laqbaqbi, M.; Sanmartino, J.A.; Khayet, M.; García-Payo, C.; Chaouch, M. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 334.

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