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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(10), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7101100

A Stochastic Bi-Level Scheduling Approach for the Participation of EV Aggregators in Competitive Electricity Markets

1
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, University of Birjand, 9856 Birjand, Iran
2
Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy)
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Abstract

This paper proposes a stochastic bi-level decision-making model for an electric vehicle (EV) aggregator in a competitive environment. In this approach, the EV aggregator decides to participate in day-ahead (DA) and balancing markets, and provides energy price offers to the EV owners in order to maximize its expected profit. Moreover, from the EV owners’ viewpoint, energy procurement cost of their EVs should be minimized in an uncertain environment. In this study, the sources of uncertainty―including the EVs demand, DA and balancing prices and selling prices offered by rival aggregators―are modeled via stochastic programming. Therefore, a two-level problem is formulated here, in which the aggregator makes decisions in the upper level and the EV clients purchase energy to charge their EVs in the lower level. Then the obtained nonlinear bi-level framework is transformed into a single-level model using Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions. Strong duality is also applied to the problem to linearize the bilinear products. To deal with the unwilling effects of uncertain resources, a risk measurement is also applied in the proposed formulation. The performance of the proposed framework is assessed in a realistic case study and the results show that the proposed model would be effective for an EV aggregator decision-making problem in a competitive environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: bi-level stochastic programming; balancing market; conditional value at risk (CVaR); day-ahead (DA) market; electric vehicle (EV) aggregator bi-level stochastic programming; balancing market; conditional value at risk (CVaR); day-ahead (DA) market; electric vehicle (EV) aggregator
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Rashidizadeh-Kermani, H.; Vahedipour-Dahraie, M.; Najafi, H.R.; Anvari-Moghaddam, A.; Guerrero, J.M. A Stochastic Bi-Level Scheduling Approach for the Participation of EV Aggregators in Competitive Electricity Markets. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1100.

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