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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(10), 1093; doi:10.3390/app7101093

Fracture Initiation of an Inhomogeneous Shale Rock under a Pressurized Supercritical CO2 Jet

1,2,3
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1,2,4,* , 1,2,3
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1
Key Laboratory of Hydraulic Machinery Transients, Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
2
Hubei Key Laboratory of Waterjet Theory and New Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
3
School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
4
School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 September 2017 / Revised: 13 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)

Abstract

Due to the advantages of good fracture performance and the application of carbon capture and storage (CCS), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) is considered a promising alternative for hydraulic fracturing. However, the fracture initiation mechanism and its propagation under pressurized SC-CO2 jet are still unknown. To address these problems, a fluid–structure interaction (FSI)-based numerical simulation model along with a user-defined code was used to investigate the fracture initiation in an inhomogeneous shale rock. The mechanism of fracturing under the effect of SC-CO2 jet was explored, and the effects of various influencing factors were analyzed and discussed. The results indicated that higher velocity jets of SC-CO2 not only caused hydraulic-fracturing ring, but also resulted in the increase of stress in the shale rock. It was found that, with the increase of perforation pressure, more cracks initiated at the tip. In contrast, the length of cracks at the root decreased. The length-to-diameter ratio and the aperture ratio distinctly affected the pressurization of SC-CO2 jet, and contributed to the non-linear distribution and various maximum values of the stress in shale rock. The results proved that Weibull probability distribution was appropriate for analysis of the fracture initiation. The studied parameters explain the distribution of weak elements, and they affect the stress field in shale rock. View Full-Text
Keywords: supercritical carbon dioxide; hydro-jet fracturing; inhomogeneous shale; user-defined code; fluid–structure coupling supercritical carbon dioxide; hydro-jet fracturing; inhomogeneous shale; user-defined code; fluid–structure coupling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Cai, C.; Kang, Y.; Wang, X.; Huang, M.; Chen, F. Fracture Initiation of an Inhomogeneous Shale Rock under a Pressurized Supercritical CO2 Jet. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1093.

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