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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(5), 129; doi:10.3390/app6050129

All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

1
Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Aalto University, Espoo 02150, Finland
2
Centre for Digital Music, Queen Mary University London, London E1 4NS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gino Iannace
Received: 15 March 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Audio Signal Processing)

Abstract

Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustic signal processing; audio systems; digital filters; digital signal processing; equalizers; infinite impulse response filters; music technology acoustic signal processing; audio systems; digital filters; digital signal processing; equalizers; infinite impulse response filters; music technology
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Välimäki, V.; Reiss, J.D. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 129.

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