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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(4), 95; doi:10.3390/app6040095

Biodegradation of Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine in Solution and Soil by Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge

1
State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
2
College of Automation, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100101, China
3
Rocket Propellant Detection and Protection Center of General Equipment Department, Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chih-Ching Huang
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 22 March 2016 / Accepted: 23 March 2016 / Published: 31 March 2016
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Abstract

The biodegradation effect and pathway of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which is a major rocket propellant with highly toxic properties, with two strains isolated from the acclimated activated sludge were investigated in solution and in soil. The results demonstrated that Stenotrophomonas sp. M12 (M12) was able to degrade UDMH of 50 mg·L−1 as the sole carbon source in aqueous mineral salt medium (MSM), but could not degrade UDMH in soil. Comamonas sp. P4 (P4) barely degraded UDMH of 50 mg·L−1 as the sole carbon source in aqueous MSM, but the degrading capacity of P4 could be improved by the addition of an extra carbon source. Meanwhile, P4 was able to degrade UDMH of 100–600 mg·kg−1 in the soil. The degradation of UDMH in the soil was influenced by organic matter, autochthonous microorganisms, and metal ions. UDMH could inhibit metabolism of M12 and P4, and the inhibition influence was more severe in aqueous MSM than in soil. Oxygen content was important for M12 biodegrading UDMH, and co-metabolism helped P4 to self-detoxify and self-recover. The main intermediates of UDMH were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) qualitative analysis, and the concentrations of UDMH and its important transformation products were determined in solution and soil. According to the determination results, the synchronous degradation theory was proposed, and the degradation pathway was discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH); biodegradation; soil; solution unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH); biodegradation; soil; solution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liao, Q.; Feng, C.; Wang, L. Biodegradation of Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine in Solution and Soil by Bacteria Isolated from Activated Sludge. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 95.

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